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LABORATORIES

Raman LIDAR
The Raman Lidar system is an active laser remote sensing instrument, that measures the vertical pofile of suspended aerosols and atmospheric molecules. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution, this system is a powerful tool for monitoring the evolution of several meteorological and atmospheric parameters.

Technical data
Emitter
Pulsed laser source: Nd:YAG
Wavelenghts: 1064, 532 and 355 nm
Energy/pulse: 90/50/60 mJ
Pulse duration: 6-8 ns
Repetition rate: 10 Hz

Ozone LIDAR
The newly developed Ozone Lidar is capableof retrieving Ozone Vertical Profiles reaching up to 12 Km height.

Constituent measured: O3-Aerosols
Measurement range: 0,4-12 Km
Measuring times: daytime-nightime
Range resolution:100m or better(up to 2 Km); 500m or better(2-5 Km); 600m or better(5-12 Km).
Raw spatial resolution:7,5 m
Accuracy: 5% or better(5-12 Km); 12-20Km(up to 5 Km)
Integration time: 30-50 min(up to 12 Km); 20-30 min(up to 5 Km).

Aerosol Particle Sizer
The TSI 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) spectrometer provides high-resolution, real-time aerodynamic measurementes of particles from 0.5 to 20 µm. This unique particle sizer also measures light-scattering intesity in the equivalent optical size range of 0.37 to 20 µm. By providing paired data for each particle, the APS spectrometer opens up exiciting new possibilities for those interested in studying the markeup of an aerosol.

Particle type: Airborne solids and non-volatile liquids.
Particle Size Range: 0.5 to 20 µm aerodynamic size, 0.3 to 20 µm optical size (PSL equivalent)
Maximum Particle Concentration: 1000 pt/cm3 at 0.5 µm with less than 5% coincidence. 1000 pt/cm3 at 10.0 µm with less than 10% coincidence. Usable data up to 10000 pt/cm3.
Display Resolution: 32 channels per decade of particle size (logarithmic). This results in 52 channels total. 1024 bins of raw time-of-flight data (4 nsec per bin) in uncorrelated mode.
Resolution: 0.02 µm at 1.0 µm diameter. 0.03 µm at 10.

Nephelometer
The Integrating Nephelometer is designed for long-term monitoring of visual range and air quality in ground-based and airborne studies. It continuously monitors the light scattering coefficient of airborn particles. The Nephelometer is designed specifically for studies of direct radiative forcing of the Earth's climate by aerosol particles, or studies of ground-based or airborne atmospheric visual air quality in clean areas. It may also be used as an analytical detector for aerosol particles whenever the parameter of interest is the light-scattering coefficient of the particles after a pretreatment step, such as heating, humidification, or segregations by size.

Wavlengths: 450 nm (blue), 550 nm (green) and 700 nm (red/infrared)
Bandwidth: 40 nm (all wavelengths)
Sensitivity at 30-sec averaging time (aerosol scattering coefficient):
- blue and green wavelengths: 1.0 x 10-7 m-1
- red/infrared wavelength: 3.0 x 10-7 m-1
Averaging time: 1 to 4096 sec (selectable)
Angular integration: 7 to 170o
Backscatter shutter: changes angular integration from 7 to 170o to 90 to 170o
Response time: <10 sec
Recommended flow rate: 20 to 200 L/min
Inlet/Outlet Dimensions: 25 mm diameter
Particle transport efficiency: >95% of unit-density particles from 0.05 to 5 µm in diameter